Citrine

Color:   Lemon yellow to golden yellow to orange-brown
   
Gem Family:   Citrine is a unique member of the quartz family.
   
Source:   Most citrine is mined in Brazil, particularly the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The Serra and Irac mines produce hundreds of kilos of rough every month.
   
Clarity:   Usually free of eye-visible inclusions
   
Size Range:   Citrine is generally more affordable than amethyst, its quartz cousin. Like all quartz gems, citrine is relatively plentiful and is available in a wide range of sizes and shapes, including very large sizes. For extra brilliance, many citrines are polished into Radial Cuts™, which have clever curved facets that focus light like lenses.
   
Shapes Available:   Ovals, cushions, checkerboards, round brilliants, trillions, princess cuts, and opposed bars.
   
Enhancement:   Much citrine starts its life as pale amethyst that is heated to remove the purple and develop its sunny yellow tones.
   
Lore & History:   In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts. Named from the French name for lemon, citron, most citrines have a light lemony color. Sunny and affordable, citrine blends especially well with the yellow gleam of polished gold.
   
Toughness & Hardness:   The hardness of citrine is 7 on the Mohs scale and it is quite tough.
   
Care & Cleaning:   Citrine is very durable but try to avoid exposure to heat. Clean with warm water, detergent, and a soft brush. Citrine can be put in ultrasonic or steam cleaners.
   
Price Range:   $10 to $40 per carat
   
Special Characteristics:   Sometimes you will hear citrine referred to as topaz quartz. Many yellow gems have been called topaz over the years. Since topaz is a separate mineral, the industry has ruled to eliminate this name as confusing and misleading. However, citrine is still considered an alternative to topaz as the birthstone for November.

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